ATI Glossary for Robotic End Effectors and Robotic Tooling
In determining the appropriate products and models of robotic
tooling that are required for an application, it is helpful for all parties to
speak the same technical language. For that reason, we have compiled this brief
glossary of robotic terms.
Robotic and Robot-Related Terms
Collision Sensor - Robotic end effector or device that can detect a crash
before or during a collision of the robot or its tool. Collision sensors send a
signal back to the robot controller before or during a collision to have the
robot avoid the collision or stop before or during a collision. Robotic crash
protection devices are collision sensors that detect the collision during the
crash. A collision sensor is also know as a robot safety
joint, robot overload protection device, crash protection device, quickstop
(trademark of Applied Robotics), robot safety mount, robotic clutch, and
robotic collision protector.
Compensator - Remote
Compliance Center Device from ATI using three to twelve elastomeric
shear pads to aid in the insertion of peg-in-hole
applications. Compensators are used in automated assembly applications to provide compliance for misalignment during assembly.
End-Effector - Any object attached to the robot flange (wrist) that
serves a function. This would include robotic grippers, robotic tool changers,
robotic crash protection, robotic rotary joint, robotic press tooling,
compliance device, robotic paint gun, robotic deburring tool, robotic arc
welding gun, robotic transgun, etc. End effector is also known as robotic
peripheral, robotic accessory, robot or robotic tool, end of arm (EOA) tooling,
or end-of-arm device. End effector may also be hyphenated as "end-effector."
Moment - (Mech.) (a) With respect to a point, the product of the
intensity of the force into the perpendicular distance from the point to the
line of direction of the force. (b) With respect to a line, the product of that
component of the force which is perpendicular to the plane passing through the
line and the point of application of the force, into the shortest distance
between the line and this point. (c) With respect to a plane that is parallel
to the force, the product of the force into the perpendicular distance of its
point of application from the plane.
Compliance Center (RCC) - Any
compliance structure has a center of compliance. If you were
to push at this center you would have a pure lateral motion (no
rotation). If you were to rotate this center, you would have
rotation with no lateral motion. A remote compliance center is a
compliance center projected outward from the device. Remote
compliance centers decouple lateral and angular motion. A RCC
device can be used in assembly to ease the insertion force. When a
project compliance center is near the insertion point of a peg-in-hole
type assembly, the peg translates into the hole when it strikes the
outside lead-in chamfer without rotating. This translation without
rotation prevents the jamming and galling seen from compliance devices
that have a compliance center far away from the insertion
point. The ATI Compensator is a RCC device.
- Any multi-axis automated articulated arm that can be reprogrammed.
Robot Crash Protection Device
(CPD) - See
Rotary Joint - Device
used to keep electrical and pneumatic cables on robot stationary while
cables for tool rotate with tool. A Rotary Joint has two halves: a
stationary half that is mounted on a robot arm, and a rotating
half that mounts to the robot wrist and tool. Slip ring technology
is used to pass electrical signals. Also known as robotic rotary union, robot slip ring.
Deburring Tool - Deburring tool, air- or electrically-driven, with
compliance and a method to mount to a robot wrist. Deburring tools
can also be mounted to a bench or fixture, with parts brought to the
unit to be deburred.
Robotic Tool Changer or Robot Coupler - An end-effector
with two mating parts normally called a Master Side and Tool Side that have been designed to lock or couple together automatically and are able to pass utilities such as electrical signals, pneumatic, water, etc. Most robot couplers use pneumatics
to lock the Master and Tool side together. The robot tool changer provides flexibility
for any automated process in order to change tools and pass various utilities. The
Master Side of the
tool changer mounts to a robot, CNC machine or other structure. The Tool Side of the tool
changer mounts to tooling, such as grippers, welders, or deburring tools.
A robotic tool changer is also known as an automatic tool changer
(ATC), robot tool
changer, robot coupler, robotic coupler, and robotic connector.
Shear Pads - Compliance pads that have layers of rubber metal
stacked at heights from 0.5 to 1.5 inches. The stacking of rubber
metal layers provides soft lateral compliance and high axial
compliance. This high ratio of axial to lateral compliance
provides the means to project a compliance center.
Utility Coupler - A Utility Coupler is a dedicated connection device that couples air or electric signals for docking and fixturing applications. A Utility Coupler is typically not designed to carry payloads. Instead, the ATI Utility Coupler includes compliance features that will compensate for severe tooling misalignments. A Utility Coupler is also known as a multi-coupling or quick connector device. A Utility Coupler can be automatic or manual, locking or non-locking, and it can feature compliance or have no compliance, depending on application requirements.
Accuracy - See Measurement Uncertainty.
ActiveX Component - A reusable software component for the Windows applications.
Compound Loading - Any load that is not
purely in one axis.
DAQ - Data Acquisition device.
F/T - Force and Torque.
Fxy - The resultant force vector comprised of
components Fx and Fy.
Hysteresis - A source of measurement error caused by the
residual effects of previously applied loads.
IFPS - InterFace/Power Supply box.
IP60 - Ingress Protection Rating "60"
designates protection against dust
IP65 - Ingress Protection Rating
"65" designates protection against water spray
IP68 - Ingress Protection Rating "68"
designates submergibility in fresh water, in this case, to a depth of 10
LabVIEW - A graphical programming environment created for
data acquisition tasks by National Instruments.
Maximum Single-Axis Overload - The largest amount
of pure load (not compound loading) that the transducer can withstand
MAP - Mounting AdaptorPlate. The MAP part of
the transducer is attached to the fixed surface or robot arm.
Measurement Uncertainty - The maximum expected
error in measurements, as specified on the calibration
NI - National Instruments Corporation, the owner of the National
Instruments and LabVIEW trademarks. (www.ni.com) Maker of Data
Acquisition Cards used by ATI in force sensors.
Overload - The condition where more load is applied to the
transducer than it can measure. This will result in
PCMCIA - A small computer card for use in most laptop
Point of Origin - The point on the
transducer from which all forces and torques are measured.
Quantization - The way the
continuously variable transducer signal is converted into discreet
digital values. Usually used when describing the change from one digital
value to the next.
Resolution - The smallest change in load that can be
measured. This is usually much smaller than accuracy.
Saturation - The condition where the transducer or data
acquisition hardware has a load or signal outside of its sensing
Sensor System - The entire assembly
consisting of parts from transducer to data acquisition card.
Six-axis Force/Torque Sensor-
Transducer measuring and outputting forces and torques from all three Cartesian
coordinates (x, y and z). A six-axis force/torque transducer is also known
as multi-axis force/torque transducer, a multi-axis load cell, F/T sensor, six-axis
TAP - Tool AdaptorPlate. The TAP part of the transducer is attached to
the load that is to be measured.
Tool Transformation - Mathematically
changing the measurement coordinate system by translating the origin
and/or rotating the axes.
Transducer - The component that converts the sensed load into
Txy - The resultant torque vector comprised of
components Tx and Ty.
Visual Basic - A Microsoft
programming environment for developing Windows-based applications.
Bottom Plate - Plate that interfaces
customer tooling to compensator.
(C-of-C) - The point
in space at which a contact force will cause a translation with no
rotation and a torque will cause a rotation with no
Insertion Contact Point - Point at which
the part being inserted contacts its mating part. At this point, a
contact force is created.
Lock Sensing - Proximity sensor mounted in
a sensor fitting detects when compensator is locked.
Lock-Up - Pneumatically-powered locking
mechanism that locks the compensator rigid for accelerated movements to
reduce wear on shear pads.
Lock-Up Screw - Locking mechanism
component that is pulled into the bottom plate by the lock-up to help
securely lock the unit.
Lock-Up Screw Bushing - Wear bushing for
the lock-up screw
Overload Pin - Component that limits the
amount of compliance to prevent damage to the compensator when
RCC - Remote Center-of-Compliance or
Remote Compliance Center (same as C-of-C)
Sensor Ready - Compensator with a sensor
fitting. Customer supplies a proximity sensor for lock
Shear Pad - Component that provides compliance in the lateral,
cocking, axial, and torsional directions.
Top Plate - Plate that interfaces the compensator with the robot or